Nursing diagnosis – INEFFECTIVE HEALTH MAINTENANCE

INEFFECTIVE  HEALTH  MAINTENANCE

DEFINITION

Inability to identify, manage, and/or seek out help to maintain health

DEFINING CHARACTERISTICS

· Demonstrated lack of adaptive behaviors (internal or external

environmental changes)

· Demonstrated lack of knowledge regarding basic health practices

· History of lack of health-seeking behaviors

· Reported or observed impairment of personal support systems

· Reported or observed inability to take responsibility for meeting

basic health practices in any or all functional pattern areas.

· Reported or observed lack of equipment or financial and other

resources

RELATED FACTORS

· Cognitive impairment

· Diminished gross motor skills

· Complicated grieving

· Inability to make appropriate

· Deficient communication skills

judgments

· Diminished fine motor skills

· Ineffective family coping

ASSESSMENT FOCUS                           (Refer  to  comprehensive  assessment  parameters.)

· Communication

· Knowledge

· Coping

· Risk management

· Healthcare system

· Values and beliefs

EXPECTED OUTCOMES

The patient will

· Maintain current health status.

· Sustain no harm or injury.

· Verbalize feelings and concerns.

· Explain health maintenance program.

· Identify available health resources.

SUGGESTED NOC OUTCOMES

Coping; Decision Making; Health Beliefs: Perceived Resources;

Health-Promoting Behavior; Social Support; Spiritual Health

INTERVENTIONS AND RATIONALES

Determine: Assess current health status; personal habits such as use

of tobacco, drugs, and alcohol; level of knowledge about disease

process; level of family and community assistance; coping

mechanisms and communication skills (verbal and written); and

degree of motivation to maintain health. Assessment factors will

assist the nurse in establishing interventions for this diagnosis.

Perform: Provide assistance with self-care, as needed. Encourage

increasing levels of independence. The patient should be as

independent in ADLs as possible.

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Administer medications as prescribed to ensure continuation of

therapy.

Adapt environment to that which is best suited to the particular

patient. Reorient the patient as needed. In the disoriented patient,

reorientation should take place frequently to keep the person as

close to knowing person, place, and time as possible.

Provide a consistent caretaker whenever possible to promote sta-

bility for the patient.

Plan a health maintenance program for patient and family members

addressing current disabilities. Provide patient and family with a writ-

ten copy. Giving instructions in writing will reinforce the various

aspects of the program and increase the possibility of compliance.

Inform: Fully describe all aspects of the patient’s care to the family

to elicit cooperation from them in continuing a plan.

Instruct family members how to carry out health maintenance

practices. Demonstrate skills such as bathing, feeding, and reality

orientation; then, have family members return demonstration under

supervision. Involving family members allows them the opportunity

to perform skills and solve problems with support and supervision.

Provide specific instructions on how to maintain a safe

environment for the patient to avoid falls and other types of

accidental injuries.

Teach relaxation techniques (e.g., guided imagery, progressive mus-

cle relaxation, and meditation) that can be done by the patient and

the family to enhance coping ability and restore psychological and

physical equilibrium by decreasing autonomic response to anxiety.

Attend: Encourage patient and family to verbalize feelings and con-

cerns related to health maintenance. This promotes better

understanding and greater ease in managing challenging situations.

Demonstrate willingness to repeat instruction and demonstrate

skills needed to care for the patients until they feel comfortable.

Manage: Refer to social and community resources, such a stroke sup-

port group, and Alzheimer’s family support group. This helps the family

gain support and receive factual information. It provides opportunity to

express feeling in a group where others are experiencing similar issues.

Making referrals is appropriate to mental health professional to

assist with prevention of burnout for the family.

SUGGESTED NIC INTERVENTIONS

Anticipatory Guidance; Coping Enhancement; Counseling; Discharge

Planning; Health Education; Health System Guidance; Physician

Support; Referral; Support System Enhancement

Reference

Cole, C. S., et al. (2006, April). Assessment and discharge planning for the

older hospitalized adults with delirium. Medsurg Nursing, 15(2), 71–76.

Nursing diagnosis – anxiety

Anxiety
DEFINITION
Vague uneasy feeling of discomfort or dread accompanied by an
autonomic response (the source often non-specific or unknown to
the individual); a feeling of apprehension caused by anticipation of
danger. It is an alerting signal that warns of impeding danger and
enables the individual to take measures to deal with threat
DEFINING CHARACTERISTICS
• Behavioral: Diminished productivity, fidgeting, restlessness,
scanning and vigilance, poor eye contact, insomnia
• Affective: Apprehensive, distressed, fearful, jittery, uncertain, wary
• Physiological: Facial tension, hand tremors, increased perspiration,
quivering voice
• Sympathetic: Anorexia, cardiovascular excitation, diarrhea, facial
flushing, increased blood pressure and/or pulse, dilated pupils
• Parasympathetic: Abdominal pain, decreased blood pressure and/or
pulse, fatigue, nausea, urinary frequency, hesitancy, or urgency
• Cognitive: Blocking of thoughts, confusion, impaired attention,
forgetfulness, tendency to blame others
RELATED FACTORS
• ANXIETY
• Threat to self-concept
• Situational crises
• Maturational crises
• Stress
• Unmet needs
• Role change
• Familial association
• Substance abuse
• Unconscious conflict about
goals or values
ASSESSMENT FOCUS (Refer to comprehensive assessment parameters.)
• Communication
• Coping
EXPECTED OUTCOMES
The patient will
• Identify factors that elicit anxious behaviors.
• Participate in activities that decrease feelings of anxious behaviors.
• Practice relaxation techniques at specific intervals each day.
• Cope with current medical situation without demonstrating severe
signs of anxiety.
• Demonstrate observable signs of reduced anxiety.
• State that the level of anxiety has decreased.
SUGGESTED NOC OUTCOMES
Anxiety Level; Coping; Grief Resolution; Hyperactivity Level;
Impulse Self-Control; Psychosocial Adjustment: Life Change; Social
Interaction Skills; Stress Level; Symptom Control
INTERVENTIONS AND RATIONALES
Determine: Listen attentively to patient to determine exactly what he or
she is feeling. Listening on the part of the nurse helps the patient
• Emotional status
• Psychological status
identify anxious behaviors more easily and discover the source of
anxiety.
Assess types of activities that help reduce patient’s stress levels.
Monitor physiologic responses including respirations, heart rate
and rhythm, and blood pressure.
Perform: Reduce environmental stressors (including people), and
remain with patient during severe anxiety. Anxiety often results from
lack of trust in the environment and/or fear of being alone.
Offer relaxing types of music for quiet listening periods. Listening
to relaxing music may have a calming effect.
Promote proper body alignment to avoid contractures and maintain
optimal musculoskeletal balance and physiologic function.
Encourage active exercise to promote a sense of well-being.
Inform: Teach patient relaxation techniques (guided imagery, progressive
muscle relaxation, and meditation) to be performed at least
every 4 hr to restore psychological and physical equilibrium by
decreasing autonomic response to anxiety.
Attend: Provide emotional support and encouragement to improve
self-concept and encourage frequent use of relaxation techniques.
Allow extra visiting times with family if this seems to allay
patient’s anxiety about activities of daily living.
Involve patient in planning and decision making to encourage
interest and compliance. Encourage patient to talk about the kinds
of activities that promote feelings of comfort. Assist patient to create
a plan to try engaging in at least one of these activities each day.
This gives the patient a sense of control.
Make sure that patient has clear explanations for everything that
will happen to him or her. Ask for feedback to ensure that the
patient understands. Anxiety may impair patient’s cognitive abilities.
Manage: Refer to case manager/social worker or professional mental
health caretaker to provide mental health assistance. Encouraging
the use of community mental health resources reinforces the fact
that anxiety reduction is a long-term process.
SUGGESTED NIC INTERVENTIONS
Anger Control Assistance; Anticipatory Guidance; Anxiety
Reduction; Behavior Modification: Social Skills; Calming Technique;
Coping Enhancement; Simple Guided Imagery; Support Group
Reference
Buffin, M. D., et al. (2006, September). A music intervention to reduce anxiety
before vascular angiography procedures. Journal of Vascular Nursing,
24(3), 68–73.