Nursing Diagnosis – Code 00104 Ineffective breastfeeding (1988, 2010, 2013; LOE 2.2)

Domain 2. Nutrition Class 1. Ingestion

Ineffective breastfeeding

Definition Difficulty providing milk to an infant or young child directly from the breasts, which may compromise nutritional status of the infant/child.

Defining Characteristics

■ Inadequate infant stooling ■ Infant arching at breast ■ Infant crying at the breast ■ Infant crying within the first hour after breastfeeding ■ Infant fussing within one hour of breastfeeding ■ Infant inability to latch on to maternal breast correctly ■ Infant resisting latching on to breast ■ Infant unresponsive to other comfort measures
■ Insufficient emptying of each breast per feeding ■ Insufficient infant weight gain ■ Insufficient signs of oxytocin release ■ Perceived inadequate milk supply ■ Sore nipples persisting beyond first week ■ Sustained infant weight loss ■ Unsustained suckling at the breast

Related Factors

■ Delayed lactogenesis II ■ Inadequate milk supply ■ Insufficient family support ■ Insufficient opportunity for suckling at the breast ■ Insufficient parental knowledge regarding breastfeeding techniques ■ Insufficient parental knowledge regarding
importance of breastfeeding
■ Interrupted breastfeeding ■ Maternal ambivalence ■ Maternal anxiety ■ Maternal breast anomaly ■ Maternal fatigue ■ Maternal obesity ■ Maternal pain ■ Oropharyngeal defect ■ Pacifier use ■ Poor infant sucking reflex ■ Prematurity ■ Previous breast surgery ■ Previous history of breastfeeding failure
■ Short maternity leave ■ Supplemental feedings with artificial nipple