RISK FOR CONTAMINATION
Accentuated risk of exposure to environmental contaminants in
doses sufﬁcient to cause adverse health effects
(temperature, wind, geographic
• Environmental contaminants
in the home
• Playing in outdoor areas
• Exposure to heavy metals or
where environmental contami-
atmospheric pollutants, disas-
nants are present
• Social factors, such as
• Insufﬁcient or absent use of
poverty, personal and house-
hold hygiene practices, lack
• Flooding, earthquakes, atmos-
of access to healthcare
pheric pollutants, or other
• Age (less than 5 years or older
• Contamination of aquifers by
• Female gender
• Industrial plant emissions,
• Concomitant or previous
discharge of contaminants by
• Developmental characteristics
• Intentional or accidental con-
(gestational age during exposure)
tamination of food and water
• Nutritional factors or dietary
• No or inappropriate use of
Preexisting disease states: gen-
der, occupation, history of
• Physical factors, such
smoking; presence of bacteria,
as climactic conditions
viruses, toxins, vectors
ASSESSMENT FOCUS (Refer to comprehensive assessment parameters.)
• Risk management
The patient/community will
• Remain free from adverse effects of contamination.
• Utilize health surveillance data system to monitor for contamina-
• Participate in mass casualty and disaster readiness drills.
• Remain free from contamination-related health effects.
• Have minimal exposure to contaminants.
SUGGESTED NOC OUTCOMES
Community Disaster Readiness; Community Health Status; Health
Beliefs: Perceived Threat; Knowledge: Health Behavior; Knowledge:
Health Resources; Risk Control
INTERVENTIONS AND RATIONALES
Determine: Monitor individuals for therapeutic effects, side effects,
and compliance with postexposure drug therapy. Drug therapy may
extend over a long period of time and will require monitoring for
compliance as well as therapeutic and side effects.
Perform: Conduct surveillance for environmental contamination;
notify agencies authorized to protect the environment of
contaminants in the area. Early surveillance and detection are criti-
cal components of preparation.
Assist individuals in relocating to safer environment to decrease
their risk of contamination.
Modify environment to minimize risk. Modiﬁcation of the
environment will decrease the risk of actual contamination.
Implement decontamination of persons, clothing, and equipment
by using approved procedure. Victims may ﬁrst require decontami-
nation before entering health facility to receive care in order to pre-
vent the spread of contamination.
Use appropriate isolation precautions: universal, airborne, droplet,
and contact isolation. Proper use of isolation precautions prevents
cross-contamination by contaminating agent.
Inform: Provide accurate information on risks involved, preventive
measures, use of antibiotics and vaccines to reduce anxiety and
Attend: Assist community members with feelings of fear and vulner-
ability. Interventions aimed at supporting an individual’s coping help
the person deal with feelings of fear, helplessness, and loss of
control that are normal reactions in a crisis situation.
Manage: In conjunction with other healthcare providers, schedule
mass casualty and disaster readiness drills. Practice in handling con-
tamination occurrences will decrease the risk of exposure during
actual contamination events.
SUGGESTED NIC INTERVENTIONS
Bioterrorism Preparedness; Communicable Disease Management;
Community; Community Disaster Preparedness; Environmental Man-
agement: Safety; Environmental Risk Protection; Health Education;
Health Policy Monitoring; Health Screening; Immunization/
Vaccination Management; Risk Identiﬁcation; Surveillance: Safety
Chung, S., & Shannon, M. (2005). Hospital planning for acts of terrorism
and other public health emergencies involving children. Archives of Disease
in Childhood, 90(12), 1300–1330.