Effective management of adaptive tasks by family member involved

with the client’s health challenge, who now exhibits desire and

readiness for enhanced health and growth in regard to self and in

relation to the client


• Individual expresses interest in making contact with others who

have experienced a similar situation.

• Family member attempts to describe growth impact of crisis.

• Family member moves in direction of enriching lifestyle.

• Family member moves in direction of health promotion.

• Individual chooses experiences that optimize wellness.


• Adaptive tasks effectively addressed to enable goals of self-

actualization to surface

• Needs sufficiently gratified to enable goals of self-actualization

ASSESSMENT FOCUS    (Refer  to  comprehensive  assessment  parameters.)

• Behavior

• Emotional status

• Coping

• Roles/responsibilities


Family members will

• Discuss the impact of patient’s illness and feelings about it with

healthcare professional.

• Participate in treatment plan.

• Establish a visiting routine beneficial to the patient.

• Demonstrate the care needed to maintain patient’s health status.

• Identify and use available support systems.


Caregiver–Patient Relationship; Caregiver Well-Being; Family

Coping; Family Normalization; Health-Promoting Behavior


Determine: Assess normal pattern of communication among family

members; understanding and knowledge of family members about

patient’s condition; family’s past response to crises; patient’s percep-

tion of health problem. Assess patient and family’s spiritual needs,

including religious beliefs and affiliation. Assessment of these factors

will assist in selecting appropriate interventions.

Perform: Schedule time to meet with family and patient in order to

listen to ways in which they plan to enhance their coping skills in

the present situation.

Provide comfort measures such as bathing, massage, regulation of

environmental temperature, and mouth care, according to the


patient’s needs and preferences. Comfort can promote ability to

cooperate with the plan.

Establish a visiting schedule that will not tax patient’s or family’s

resources. Use patient’s daily routine to aid in planning (e.g., no vis-

iting during treatments or during periods of uninterrupted rest).

Establishing a routine will allow the patient have consistency and a

measure of control.

Inform: Teach self-healing techniques to patient and family such as

meditation, guided imagery, yoga, and prayer. These strategies pro-

mote anxiety reduction.

Teach patient how to incorporate the use of self-healing

techniques in carrying out usual daily activities in order to encour-

age ongoing use of the strategies.

Demonstrate procedures and encourage participation in patient’s

care in a way that maximizes patient’s comfort. Both patient and

family need to work together to implement the plan with patient’s

comfort in mind.

Provide patient with concise information about condition. Be

aware of what family members already know. Honesty is important

when conveying information.

Attend: Reinforce family’s efforts to care for patient. Let family

know they are doing well to ease adaptation to new caregiver roles.

Ensure privacy for patient and family visits to foster open


Encourage family to support patient’s independence. Encourage

patient’s cooperation as you continue with healing techniques, such

as therapeutic touch. There is a need to allow for as much independ-

ence on the part of the patient as possible. At times the family will

try to promote dependency to the detriment of the patient.

Provide emotional support to family by being available to answer

questions. Availability will communicate to the family that you are

concerned for them and the patient.

Manage: Refer family to community resources and support groups

available to assist in managing patient’s illness and providing emo-

tional and financial assistance to caregivers.

Refer to a member of the clergy or a spiritual counselor, accord-

ing to the patient’s preference, to show respect for the patient’s

beliefs and provide spiritual care.


Coping Enhancement; Family Process Management


Nelson, J. E., et al. (2005, March). When critical illness becomes chronic: Infor-

mational needs of patient and family. Journal of Critical Care, 20(1), 79–89.