Perceived lack of ease, relief, and transcendence in physical, psycho-
spiritual, environmental, and social dimensions
• Disturbed sleep pattern, inability to relax, and restlessness
• Insufﬁcient resources (e.g., ﬁnancial, social support)
• Lack of environmental or situational control
• Lack of privacy
• Noxious environmental stimuli
• Reports being uncomfortable, hot or cold, or hungry
• Reports distressing symptoms, anxiety, crying, irritability, and
• Reports itching
• Reports lack of contentment in situation
• Treatment-related side effects (e.g., medication, radiation)
• Muscle tone
• Sleep patterns
The patient will
• Maintain heart rate, rhythm, and respiration rate within expected
range during rest and activity.
• Maintain muscle mass and strength.
• Report pain using pain scale.
• Report periods of restful sleep.
SUGGESTED NOC OUTCOMES
Comfort Status; Coping; Knowledge Health Promotion; Pain Control
INTERVENTIONS AND RATIONALES
Determine: Monitor pain level using scale 1–10. Using a scale will
allow evaluation of the effectiveness of pain-relieving measures.
Assess vitals signs during times of discomfort, including blood
pressure, heart rate and rhythm, and respirations. Use the patient’s
baseline vital signs to evaluate response to pain and response to
Assess sleeping patterns in response to discomfort. Interruption of
sleep is common in patients experiencing discomfort.
Perform: Provide a quiet and relaxing atmosphere. Encourage active
exercise to increase feeling of well-being. Provide pain medications
as ordered; evaluate response to evaluate effectiveness of pain-relieving
Inform: Teach relaxation exercises and techniques to promote
reduced pain levels, sleep, and anxiety. Teach medication administra-
tion and schedule to facilitate pain relief. Teach massage therapy to
caregiver to promote comfort.
Attend: Provide support and encouragement during periods of
discomfort. Include patient in plan of action to promote self-care.
Manage: Refer to pain management clinic if pain cannot be
controlled through relaxation and exercise. Refer to physical thera-
pist to accommodate patient’s level of physical activity. Refer to
massage therapist to promote relaxation. All healthcare professionals
contribute to the overall goal of maintaining comfort.
SUGGESTED NIC INTERVENTIONS
Active Listening; Aromatherapy; Calming Technique; and Coping
Dowd, T., Kolcaba, K., Fashinpaur, D., Steiner, R., Deck, M., & Daugherty, H.
(2007). Comparison of healing touch and coaching on stress and comfort in
young college students. Holistic Nursing Practice, 21(4), 194–202.