DEFICIENT KNOWLEDGE (SPECIFY)
Absence or deﬁciency of cognitive information related to a speciﬁc
• Inability to follow through with directions
• Inability to perform well on a test
• Inappropriate or exaggerated behaviors (hysteria, hostility,
• Verbalization of the problem
• Cognitive limitation
• Lack of recall
• Information misinterpretation
• Unfamiliarity with information
• Lack of exposure
• Lack of interest in learning
ASSESSMENT FOCUS (Refer to comprehensive assessment parameters.)
The patient will
• Communicate desire to understand disease state and need for
• Demonstrate ability to perform new health-related procedures.
• Set realistic learning goals within target dates.
• State intention to make needed modiﬁcations in lifestyle.
SUGGESTED NOC OUTCOMES
Cognition; Concentration; Information Processing; Knowledge: Dis-
ease Process; Knowledge; Health Behaviors; Knowledge: Health
Resources; Knowledge: Illness Care; Stress Level
INTERVENTIONS AND RATIONALES
Determine: Determine level of knowledge and skills patient already
possesses about his or her health status; motivation to understand
what is needed to improve health status; obstacles to learning; sup-
port systems; usual coping patterns; beliefs about health and treat-
ment of disease; ethnicity; ﬁnancial resources. Assessment informa-
tion will assist in identifying appropriate interventions.
Perform: Establish an environment of mutual trust and respect to
enhance learning. Consistency between action and words, combined
with the patient’s self-awareness ability to share this awareness with
others, and receptiveness to new experiences form the basis of a
Develop with patient speciﬁc learning goals with target dates.
Involving patient in planning meaningful goals encourages
Select teaching strategies that will enhance teaching/learning effec-
tiveness, such as discussion, demonstration, role-playing, and visual
materials. Provide all the equipment needed for the patient to learn.
This reduces frustration, aids learning, and minimizes dependence by
Inform: Teach those skills that the patient must incorporate into
daily living. Have patient do return demonstration of each skill to
aid in gaining conﬁdence.
When teaching, go slowly and repeat frequently. Offer small
amounts of information and present it in various ways. By building
cognition, patient will be better able to complete self-care measures.
Include family members.
Demonstrate to family members how each self-care measure is
broken down into simple tasks to enhance patient’s success and fos-
ter a sense of control.
Attend: Encourage family members to participate in and have
patience toward learning process (patient may need to repeat new
skills multiple times) to help create a therapeutic environment after
Manage: Have patient incorporate learned skills into care while still
in the hospital. This allows practice and time for feedback.
Provide patient and/or family with names and telephone numbers
of resource people or community agencies so that care is continuous
and follow-up is possible after discharge.
If ﬁnancial hardship interferes with the ability of the family to
provide equipment and supplies, offer a referral to a social worker
to improve the family’s access to ﬁnancial assistance.
SUGGESTED NIC INTERVENTIONS
Behavior Management; Behavior Modiﬁcation; Decision-Making
Support; Energy Management; Family Support; Financial Resource
Assistance; Health Education; Healthcare Information Exchange:
Risk Identiﬁcation; Learning Facilitation; Support System Enhance-
ment; Teaching Procedure/Treatment
Shen, Q., et al. (2006, May–June). Evaluation of a medication education pro-
gram for elderly hospitalized inpatients. Geriatric Nursing, 27(3), 184–192.